Learn More

Aragón Huerta, M. “Ibn Firnas, ’Abbas.” Enciclopedia de la Cultura Andalusí. Biblioteca de Al-Andalus. Edited by Jorge Lirola Delgado and José Miguel Puerta Vílchez. Almería: Fundación Ibn Tufayl de Estudios Árabes, 2004, I/3, 168-72.

Aragón Huerta, Mercedes. “ʿAbbās ibn Firnās: de personaje histórico a personaje literario, en la obra narrativa de Zakariyyā Tāmir.” Al-Andalus Magreb 7 (1999): 21-41.

 

Bakar, Osman. “The Golden Age of Andalusian Science.” Islamica 18 (2006): 106-112.

 

“First Flights,” Saudi Aramco World, February 1964.

Khan, M.A.R. “A Note on Ibn Firnas’s Successful Attempt at Soaring Flight.” Islamic Culture 21 (1947): 404-405.

 

Lévi-Provençal, E. “ʿAbbās b. Firnās b. Wardūs, Abu ‘l-Ḳāsim.” Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd edition, Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs.

 

Lienhard, John. “‘Abbas Ibn Firnas.” The Engines of Our Ingenuity. Episode 1910 (2004). NPR. KUHF-FM Houston.

 

Al-Makkari. History of the Muhammadan Dynasties in Spain. Trans. Pascual de Gayangos (London 1840), Book 2 Chapter 3, 148.

 

Rius, Mónica. “El sabio total Ibn Firnás.” In Sabios en Al-Ándalus: homenaje al malagueño Ibn Al-shayj Al-Bálawi en el octavo centenario de su muerte (2008), 9-13.

 

Terés, Elías. “‘Abbas ibn Firnas.” Al-Andalus 25.1 (Jan 1, 1960): 239.

 

Terés, Elías. “Abbas Ibn Firnas.” In The formation of al-Andalus. Part 2: Language, religion, culture and the sciences. Ed. M.Fierro & J.Samsó, edited by Kennedy, M, 235-244. Aldershot: Ashgate Variorum, 1998

 

Terés, Elías. “Sobre el vuelo de Abbas Ibn Firnas.” Al-Andalus 29.2 (Jan 1, 1964): 365.

 

Tschanz, David W. “Flights of Fancy on Manmade Wings,” Saudi Aramco World Magazine Saudi Aramco World, December 2008.

Vernet, Jules. “’Abbas Ibn Firnas.” Dictionary of Scientific Biography, C.C. Gilespie, ed.). New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1970-1980, 5.

White, Jr., Lynn. “Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition.” Technology and Culture , Vol. 2, No. 2 (Spring, 1961), 97-111. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3101411

Zéki Pacha, Ahmed. “L’aviation chez les Arabes.” Bulletin de l’Institute Égyptien 5, no. 5 (1911): 92–101.